Neuromodulation refers to a series of biomedical engineering techniques which normalize or modulate the function of the nervous system through invasive or non-invasive delivery of physical or chemical stimulus. In the past thirty years, with the in-depth understanding of the nervous system and its mechanisms of action, as well as the rapidly developing modern techniques, neuromodulation has evolved from basic concept to clinical applications. At the same time, new concepts and alternative methods of neuromodulation are constantly being innovated, tested and put into practice. The advancing of neuromodulation techniques will not only provide new tools for basic neuroscience research but also offer novel therapeutic options for neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this overview, we will briefly introduce the current status of different types of neuromodulation techniques, including the clinical applications, underlying mechanisms of their therapeutic effects and advantages/disadvantages, as well as the prospects for the future.