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Special Topic on Brain Science and Brain Like Intelligence
Neurosurgery plays a key role in brain science research
Jizong ZHAO
2020, 1(8):  1-4.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.617
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The 21st century is the century of brain. Neurosurgery has a unique advantage in brain research as it can directly observe patients' brain. This article will elaborate the following domains of neurosurgery, including cognitive function research, docking brain-like intelligence transformation, and innovative combination of medicine and engineering.

The latest advances in human brain projects
Xingang LI,Xin ZHANG,Anjing CHEN
2020, 1(8):  5-9, 21.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0606
Abstract ( 118 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1284KB) ( 80 )   Save
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With the rapid development of modern technology, we have extended in-depth knowledge of the surrounding world from both macro and micro perspectives. However, we know very little about the fine structure and operation mechanism of human brain. Therefore, many countries and regions have proposed and launched human brain projects to deepen our understanding of human brain and to develop novel treatment for the nervous and psychiatric system related disorders. This paper reviews the human brain projects implemented by the European Union, the United States, Japan and China in recent years, and introduce the key research directions and breakthroughs. We will also proudly introduce the "Qilu Brain Project" carried out by our institute and briefly present our project progress. The implementation of human brain projects is conducive to promoting the progress of artificial intelligence and other related disciplines as well as economic and social development and needs more in-depth international cooperation.

The application of brain-like intelligence in the frontiers of brain science
Tao JIANG
2020, 1(8):  10-13.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0577
Abstract ( 78 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1437KB) ( 27 )   Save
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Brain science and brain-like intelligence technology are promising for life science research in the future. Neurosurgery, as the only discipline with direct access to the brain, is bound to play a crucial role in the human brain project. Identifying technologies in neurosurgery include neuro-radiological and electrophysiological techniques. Combination of artificial intelligence and identifying technologies helps to accelerate the completion of the human brain project.

Intelligent diagnosis methods of Alzheimer's disease
Yilong YIN,Xiaoming XI,Xianjing MENG
2020, 1(8):  14-21.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2019.1503
Abstract ( 68 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (1599KB) ( 103 )   Save
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As the number of elderly people increases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become a tremendous economic and societal burden. The research on AD has been considered an important global public health topic. However, there is currently no cure for AD; therefore, early detection is very helpful for the diagnosis. Neuroimaging plays an important role for the early diagnosis of AD among all detection tools and has attracted great attention in recent years. In order to provide new insights into the intelligent diagnosis methods of AD, this paper reviews the recent advances including methods based on single-modality and multi-modality and discusses the future work.

Advances on the treatment of Alzheimer's disease with deep brain stimulation
Xinguang YU,Yanyang ZHANG
2020, 1(8):  22-27,33.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0399
Abstract ( 61 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1312KB) ( 49 )   Save
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been increasingly considered as a large-scale network disconnection syndrome. Currently, AD remains unchecked, and the economic burden on society is huge. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) engaging circuits and networks in the brain of AD patients is proved potentially therapeutic, but still in the infant stage. This article reviews the indications, stimulation targets and parameters, mechanism and future trends of DBS in the treatment of AD.

The construction, asymmetry and genetic correlation of 4D digital brain atlas
Shuwei LIU,Yunxia LOU,Yuchun TANG
2020, 1(8):  28-33.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.1012
Abstract ( 48 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1562KB) ( 18 )   Save
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Human Brain Mapping is an important tool for exploring the structure and function of human brains, and is the basic platform for analyzing and processing brain structure and function information. The establishment of standardized 4D brain maps of different ages, genders and brain types, and the use of computer technology for visualization and dynamic analysis of brain structure can provide a detailed morphological basis for the embryogenesis and development of human brain structure and function. In this review, we present recent studies regarding the construction, asymmetry and genetic correlation of 4D digital brain atlas. Finally, discussions on the future research directions of brain atlas are given.

Mitochondrial dysfunction and related brain diseases
Chuanzhu YAN,Wei WANG,Kunqian JI,Yuying ZHAO
2020, 1(8):  34-41.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0725
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Mitochondria provides most of the energy for the body through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and participates in various physiological and biochemical processes such as cell signal transduction, inflammatory response and apoptosis. Brain is very sensitive to energy change. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with various disorders including genetic and metabolic diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, psychological diseases and brain aging via multiple pathways. At present, there is no specific treatment plan for mitochondrial encephalopathy. Research on mitochondrial gene targeted therapy is expected to break through the treatment bottleneck of mitochondrial diseases and brings hope to patients

Brain tumor image segmentation based on deep learning techniques
Ju LIU,Qiang WU,Luyue YU,Fengming LIN
2020, 1(8):  42-49, 73.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0391
Abstract ( 68 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (6300KB) ( 49 )   Save
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Artificial intelligence technology is widely applied in the field of computer vision and deep learning. Image segmentation technology based on deep learning is essential in industries such as autonomous driving, drones, and clinical diagnosis and treatment. This paper reviews the methods of brain tumor image segmentation, including the traditional methods of image segmentation and methods based on deep learning and some typical methods. The paper also compares our research advances with the typical methods and discusses future research directions and challenges.

A general overview of neuromodulation
Di ZHANG,Meng YU,Xia LIU
2020, 1(8):  50-60.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0602
Abstract ( 68 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (4269KB) ( 183 )   Save
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Neuromodulation refers to a series of biomedical engineering techniques which normalize or modulate the function of the nervous system through invasive or non-invasive delivery of physical or chemical stimulus. In the past thirty years, with the in-depth understanding of the nervous system and its mechanisms of action, as well as the rapidly developing modern techniques, neuromodulation has evolved from basic concept to clinical applications. At the same time, new concepts and alternative methods of neuromodulation are constantly being innovated, tested and put into practice. The advancing of neuromodulation techniques will not only provide new tools for basic neuroscience research but also offer novel therapeutic options for neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this overview, we will briefly introduce the current status of different types of neuromodulation techniques, including the clinical applications, underlying mechanisms of their therapeutic effects and advantages/disadvantages, as well as the prospects for the future.

Locmotion control of quadruped robot based on deep reinforcement learning: review and prospect
Wei ZHANG,Wenhao TAN,Yibin LI
2020, 1(8):  61-66.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0607
Abstract ( 96 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1128KB) ( 46 )   Save
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Brain-inspired deep reinforcement learning has recently led to a wide range of successes in different domains such as artificial intelligence and robotics. The method combining both advantages of deep learning and reinforcement learning gets strong capability of perception and decision-making. In this paper, we first provide a brief overview of two kinds of widely used deep reinforcement learning method and their fundamentals, then introduce the current status of deep reinforcement learning applying on quadruped robots. Finally, by summarizing the existing methods and the characteristics of locomotion for quadruped robots, we present future potential of deep reinforcement learning on quadruped robots.

Research advances in the formation of glioma immunosuppressive microenvironment
Gang LI,Hao XUE,Wei QIU,Rongrong ZHAO
2020, 1(8):  67-73.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.430
Abstract ( 86 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1393KB) ( 78 )   Save
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As the most common and lethal primary tumor of the central nervous system, glioma responds poorly to conventional treatments. Although novel immunotherapies have been adopted, the prognosis of glioma patients is still poor due to the immunosuppressive microenvironment. Therefore, a thorough investigation of the formation mechanism of glioma immunosuppressive microenvironment has become the focus. Based on the latest research progress, we summarized and prospected the future research direction of glioma immunosuppressive microenvironment, hoping to provide reference for the better understanding of this disease.

Overview of glioblastoma models and development and application of brain organoids
Jian WANG,Wenjing ZHOU,Zhiyi XUE,Xiaofei LIU
2020, 1(8):  74-80.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0601
Abstract ( 78 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (2754KB) ( 15 )   Save
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Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor with high morbidity and high mortality. The primary goal of researches on GBM is to establish models to recapitulate the tumor invasive phenotype. In this review, we have systematically summarized the in vitro and in vivo models in GBM study by discussing the establishment and applications as well as their limitations. We acknowledge the development of various model systems in recent years which has substantially improved GBM research activities. However, largely due to difficulties of recapitulating the complicated microenvironment in GBM, it remains challenging to explore the tumor developmental mechanism and candidate drug efficacy in the treatment. Our team has extensively studied GBM for many years and established an ex-vivo model using rat brain organoids. Extensive data show that the model can highly mimic the process of brain development. Together with GBM patient-derived tumor spheroids and brain organoids, we have established co-culture model systems in order to in real time study the invasive GBM, which may fundamentally help us to understand the tumor development. Moreover, using the system, we are able to sort the invasive tumor cells from non-invasive tumor cells and analyze single cell RNA sequences to identify key molecules, which will be possible in turn to offer us new therapeutic candidates potentially targeting GBM.

A research on multi-modal MRI analysis based on machine learning for brain glioma
Qiang WU,Zekun HE,Ju LIU,Xiaomeng CUI,Shuang SUN,Wei SHI
2020, 1(8):  81-87.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0598
Abstract ( 102 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (2371KB) ( 9 )   Save
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Brain glioma, a common primary brain tumor, has characteristics of high recurrence rate, high death rate and low cure rate. Conventional clinical diagnosis mainly depends on CT and MRI. With the development of imaging technology and machine learning methods, multi-modal image intelligent analysis technology has gradually become a research hotspot, which has an important application prospect in brain glioma lesion segmentation and measurement, tumor classification, overall survival prediction and genotype identification. This paper updates the application of machine learning and multi-modal imaging in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of brain glioma.

The new strategies of targeting SUMOylation in the treatment of glioma
Anjing CHEN,Xun ZHANG
2020, 1(8):  88-94.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0604
Abstract ( 78 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1872KB) ( 19 )   Save
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Small ubiquitin-like modification (SUMOylation), a dynamic process of post-translational modification, involves a series of physiological changes within the cells. SUMOylation also plays an important role in the pathological progresses of a number of cancers including the fatal disease, glioma. In this essay, we reviewed the key aspects of SUMOylation in association with glioma from the literatures and highlighted that some potential targets were expected to be therapeutic strategies in the treatment of glioma.

Clinical observation of the effects of two endoscopic approaches on olfactory function in 232 patients undergoing pituitary tumor resection
WANG Hui, CHENG Lian, XU Shujun
2020, 1(8):  95-100.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0038
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Objective To compare the changes of olfactory function in two groups of patients who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal approach(ETSA)and endoscopic nasal septum submucosal approach for pituitary adenoma resection. Methods A total of 232 patients with pituitary adenoma treated in our hospital during Jan. 2017 and Apr. 2018 were prospectively divided into the observation group(nasal septum submucosal approach, n=149)and control group(ETSA, n=83). Olfactory detection threshold(DT)and recognition threshold(RT)were measured at different time points before and after operation by five-taste method. Results Before operation, DT was 1.70±0.30 in the observation group and 1.67±0.36 in the control group, and RT was 2.22±0.52 and 2.26±0.50, respectively(P>0.05). One month after operation, DT rose to 3.22±0.99 and 3.56±0.91, respectively(P=0.011), and RT rose to 3.79±0.84 and 4.34±0.82(P<0.001). There were significant differences between the two groups(P<0.05), and the control group had higher DT and RT than the observation group. Three months after operation, DT was 2.69±0.70 in the observation group and 3.05±0.97 in the control group(P=0.003), and RT was 3.31±0.74 and 3.84±0.76, respectively(P<0.001). There were significant differences between the two groups(P<0.05). Six months after operation, DT was 2.21±0.64 in the observation group and 2.66±0.79 in the control group(P<0.001), and RT was 2.98±0.64 and 3.44±0.55, respectively(P<0.001). There were significant differences between the two groups(P<0.01), and the control group had higher DT and RT than the observation group. Conclusion Both approaches could affect the olfactory function, which could not return to the pre-operative level 6 months after operation. Compared with ETSA, the endoscopic nasal septum submucosal approach caused less damage to olfactory function.
Correlation of fat distribution with metabolic syndrome and glucose metabolism in 52 obese patients
HU Yanwen, WANG Zhiyuan, YU Wanjiang, ZHAO Huichen, HAN Heli, XU Zhipeng, MA Hong, ZHANG Yuchao, LIU Yuantao
2020, 1(8):  101-106.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.673
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Objective To investigate the effects of fat distribution measured by quantitative-computed tomography(Q-CT)on metabolic syndrome(MS)and glucose metabolism in obese people. Methods Totally 52 patients with body mass index(BMI)≥28 were collected and divided into two groups: obesity with MS group(OB-MS group, n=32)and obesity without MS group(OB-NMS group, n=20). According to the results of 75g oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT), the subjects were divided into three groups: obesity with normal glucose tolerance group(OB-NGT group, n=17), impaired glucose tolerance group(OB-IGT group, n=15), and obesity with diabetes mellitus group(OB-DM group, n=20). The adipose tissue area and visceral fat area of lumbar vertebras 2, 3, 4 and 5, the muscle and fat area of bilateral psoas major and back muscles, and the percentages of liver fat and pancreatic fat were quantitatively determined with spiral CT. Meanwhile, various metabolic and biochemical indexes were detected and compared. Results OB-MS group had significantly larger visceral fat area(t=3.37)and higher percentage of pancreatic fat(t=2.05)than OB-NMS group. There were statistically significant differences in visceral fat area(F=7.63), percentage of liver fat(F=5.93)and percentage of pancreatic head fat(F=3.70)among the three groups with different glucose tolerance(P<0.05). OB-IGT and OB-DM groups had larger visceral fat area than OB-NGT group, and OB-DM group had greater percentages of liver fat and pancreatic head fat than OB-NGT group(P<0.05). Multiple linear regression results showed that after age and insulin resistance index were adjusted, visceral fat area(SB=-0.83, P=0.02)and percentage of pancreatic head fat(SB=-0.51, P=0.02)were negatively correlated with modified β-cell function index(MBCI). Conclusion The accumulation of visceral fat is an important factor leading to metabolic syndrome, while visceral fat, liver fat and pancreatic head fat are important risk factors leading to abnormal glucose metabolism in obese people. These results provide clinical indicators for the early identification of metabolic syndrome and diabetes in obese patients.
Lateral approach arthroscopic subtalar arthrodesis
WU Gang, WANG Shilong, DUAN Xiaoran, WANG Yang, ZHANG Hongchuan
2020, 1(8):  107-114.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0551
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Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of lateral arthroscopic subtalar arthrodesis(ASA). Methods Lateral ASA was performed in 21 patients with unilateral subtalar joint arthritis. The American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society(AOFAS)score before and after operation, visual analogue scoring(VAS), union rate, excellent rate, union time as well as postoperative complications were evaluated. Results All operations were successful. During the follow-up of 12-41(average 22.7±4.2)months, no complication such as infection, necrosis, degenerative arthritis, neurovascular injury or hardware failure occurred; lateral impingement pain was observed in 1 case, screw cap irritation in 1 case, and partial posterior tibia nerve injury in 1 case. All 21 patients showed bone fusion on X-ray, with an average of(8.3±0.5)weeks of fusion. The AOFAS score rose from 41.73±3.87 before operation to 83.24±3.65 at final follow-up(P<0.01), and VAS score increased from 6.5±1.2 to 1.5±0.4(P<0.01). At the final follow-up, 1 patient had poor rating, 1 had medium rating, 1 had fair rating, 18 had good rating, and the fair and good ratings accounted for 90.48%. Conclusion Lateral ASA is a safe and effective treatment of subtalar joint diseases, with advantages of few trauma, fast recovery, few complications and high fusion rate.
Factors influencing root resorption after replantation of avulsed permanent teeth: a report of 47 teeth
HAN Ting, DU Jing, YU Jiali, ZHENG Wenzhou, WANG Yan
2020, 1(8):  115-119.  doi:10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0966
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Objective To summarize the clinical characteristics of avulsed permanent teeth and to analyze the factors influencing root resorption after implantation. Methods A total of 35 patients with 47 avulsed permanent teeth due to trauma were enrolled in this study. The avulsed teeth were replanted during 2017 and 2018 in the Hospital of Stomatology, Shandong University. All cases were followed up regularly for more than 1 year. Results (1) Root resorption was observed in 20(42.6%)teeth during the follow-up. (2) For the 7 teeth replanted within 1 hour after avulsion, the rate of root resorption was 0.0%, while for the 40 teeth replanted more than 1 hour after avulsion, the rate of root resorption was 50%, and the difference was significant(P=0.015). (3) The rate of root resorption was significantly lower in mature cases(32.3%)than in immature cases(62.3%)(P=0.047). (4) Teeth stored in saliva(n=17)had a lower rate of resorption(17.6%)than teeth stored in normal saline(n=11, 63.3%, P=0.020)or in dry medium(n=11, 72.7%, P=0.006), and there was no difference between the latter two media. Conclusion The time elapsed from the socket and storage medium play an important role in improving the periodontal healing of avulsed teeth. Replanting the avulsed teeth in time and storing them in appropriate medium can significantly reduce the rate of root resorption.