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    Application of geographic information system in the control of COVID-19 epidemic
    Xiujun LI,Xinlou LI,Kun LIU,Xiaobo ZHAO,Meng MA,Bo SUN
    Journal of Shandong University (Health Sciences)    2020, 58 (10): 13-19.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0891
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    Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, the geographic information system (GIS) has played an important role in explaining the epidemic distribution, characteristics of regional transmission, risk assessment, and early prediction and warning, which greatly helped the disease control and prevention. In this study, the application of GIS in COVID-19 prevention and control was reviewed, hoping to provide reference for future improvement in the prevention and control measures.

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    Lifestyle medicine
    Xin MA
    Journal of Shandong University (Health Sciences)    2020, 58 (10): 1-6, 12.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.1151
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    Lifestyle medicine (LM), an emerging new medical discipline, uses evidence-based lifestyle therapeutic approaches (non-drug, non-surgery modalities) to prevent, treat and oftentimes reverse lifestyle-related chronic disea- ses. Board Certification of LM was first initiated by American Society of Lifestyle Medicine in 2017 and followed by countries in Europe and Asia. LM has been considered a global movement and the future of healthcare reform. "Healthy China 2030 Plan" and " Healthy China Action Plan" issued by China government in 2016 and 2019 respectively have emphasized the importance of "people?s healthy lifestyle" and "everyone as the first responder of his/her own health". The establishment and development of LM in China will play a significant role in the "Healthy China 2030 Plan" and be an indispensable component of "Healthy China Action Plan".

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    Locmotion control of quadruped robot based on deep reinforcement learning: review and prospect
    Wei ZHANG,Wenhao TAN,Yibin LI
    Journal of Shandong University (Health Sciences)    2020, 1 (8): 61-66.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0607
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    Brain-inspired deep reinforcement learning has recently led to a wide range of successes in different domains such as artificial intelligence and robotics. The method combining both advantages of deep learning and reinforcement learning gets strong capability of perception and decision-making. In this paper, we first provide a brief overview of two kinds of widely used deep reinforcement learning method and their fundamentals, then introduce the current status of deep reinforcement learning applying on quadruped robots. Finally, by summarizing the existing methods and the characteristics of locomotion for quadruped robots, we present future potential of deep reinforcement learning on quadruped robots.

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    Neurosurgery plays a key role in brain science research
    Jizong ZHAO
    Journal of Shandong University (Health Sciences)    2020, 1 (8): 1-4.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.617
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    The 21st century is the century of brain. Neurosurgery has a unique advantage in brain research as it can directly observe patients' brain. This article will elaborate the following domains of neurosurgery, including cognitive function research, docking brain-like intelligence transformation, and innovative combination of medicine and engineering.

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    A general overview of neuromodulation
    Di ZHANG,Meng YU,Xia LIU
    Journal of Shandong University (Health Sciences)    2020, 1 (8): 50-60.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0602
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    Neuromodulation refers to a series of biomedical engineering techniques which normalize or modulate the function of the nervous system through invasive or non-invasive delivery of physical or chemical stimulus. In the past thirty years, with the in-depth understanding of the nervous system and its mechanisms of action, as well as the rapidly developing modern techniques, neuromodulation has evolved from basic concept to clinical applications. At the same time, new concepts and alternative methods of neuromodulation are constantly being innovated, tested and put into practice. The advancing of neuromodulation techniques will not only provide new tools for basic neuroscience research but also offer novel therapeutic options for neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this overview, we will briefly introduce the current status of different types of neuromodulation techniques, including the clinical applications, underlying mechanisms of their therapeutic effects and advantages/disadvantages, as well as the prospects for the future.

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    Brain tumor image segmentation based on deep learning techniques
    Ju LIU,Qiang WU,Luyue YU,Fengming LIN
    Journal of Shandong University (Health Sciences)    2020, 1 (8): 42-49, 73.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0391
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    Artificial intelligence technology is widely applied in the field of computer vision and deep learning. Image segmentation technology based on deep learning is essential in industries such as autonomous driving, drones, and clinical diagnosis and treatment. This paper reviews the methods of brain tumor image segmentation, including the traditional methods of image segmentation and methods based on deep learning and some typical methods. The paper also compares our research advances with the typical methods and discusses future research directions and challenges.

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    The latest advances in human brain projects
    Xingang LI,Xin ZHANG,Anjing CHEN
    Journal of Shandong University (Health Sciences)    2020, 1 (8): 5-9, 21.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0606
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    With the rapid development of modern technology, we have extended in-depth knowledge of the surrounding world from both macro and micro perspectives. However, we know very little about the fine structure and operation mechanism of human brain. Therefore, many countries and regions have proposed and launched human brain projects to deepen our understanding of human brain and to develop novel treatment for the nervous and psychiatric system related disorders. This paper reviews the human brain projects implemented by the European Union, the United States, Japan and China in recent years, and introduce the key research directions and breakthroughs. We will also proudly introduce the "Qilu Brain Project" carried out by our institute and briefly present our project progress. The implementation of human brain projects is conducive to promoting the progress of artificial intelligence and other related disciplines as well as economic and social development and needs more in-depth international cooperation.

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    The application of brain-like intelligence in the frontiers of brain science
    Tao JIANG
    Journal of Shandong University (Health Sciences)    2020, 1 (8): 10-13.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0577
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    Brain science and brain-like intelligence technology are promising for life science research in the future. Neurosurgery, as the only discipline with direct access to the brain, is bound to play a crucial role in the human brain project. Identifying technologies in neurosurgery include neuro-radiological and electrophysiological techniques. Combination of artificial intelligence and identifying technologies helps to accelerate the completion of the human brain project.

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    A research on multi-modal MRI analysis based on machine learning for brain glioma
    Qiang WU,Zekun HE,Ju LIU,Xiaomeng CUI,Shuang SUN,Wei SHI
    Journal of Shandong University (Health Sciences)    2020, 1 (8): 81-87.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0598
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    Brain glioma, a common primary brain tumor, has characteristics of high recurrence rate, high death rate and low cure rate. Conventional clinical diagnosis mainly depends on CT and MRI. With the development of imaging technology and machine learning methods, multi-modal image intelligent analysis technology has gradually become a research hotspot, which has an important application prospect in brain glioma lesion segmentation and measurement, tumor classification, overall survival prediction and genotype identification. This paper updates the application of machine learning and multi-modal imaging in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of brain glioma.

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    Overview of glioblastoma models and development and application of brain organoids
    Jian WANG,Wenjing ZHOU,Zhiyi XUE,Xiaofei LIU
    Journal of Shandong University (Health Sciences)    2020, 1 (8): 74-80.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0601
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    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor with high morbidity and high mortality. The primary goal of researches on GBM is to establish models to recapitulate the tumor invasive phenotype. In this review, we have systematically summarized the in vitro and in vivo models in GBM study by discussing the establishment and applications as well as their limitations. We acknowledge the development of various model systems in recent years which has substantially improved GBM research activities. However, largely due to difficulties of recapitulating the complicated microenvironment in GBM, it remains challenging to explore the tumor developmental mechanism and candidate drug efficacy in the treatment. Our team has extensively studied GBM for many years and established an ex-vivo model using rat brain organoids. Extensive data show that the model can highly mimic the process of brain development. Together with GBM patient-derived tumor spheroids and brain organoids, we have established co-culture model systems in order to in real time study the invasive GBM, which may fundamentally help us to understand the tumor development. Moreover, using the system, we are able to sort the invasive tumor cells from non-invasive tumor cells and analyze single cell RNA sequences to identify key molecules, which will be possible in turn to offer us new therapeutic candidates potentially targeting GBM.

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    Intelligent diagnosis methods of Alzheimer's disease
    Yilong YIN,Xiaoming XI,Xianjing MENG
    Journal of Shandong University (Health Sciences)    2020, 1 (8): 14-21.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2019.1503
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    As the number of elderly people increases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become a tremendous economic and societal burden. The research on AD has been considered an important global public health topic. However, there is currently no cure for AD; therefore, early detection is very helpful for the diagnosis. Neuroimaging plays an important role for the early diagnosis of AD among all detection tools and has attracted great attention in recent years. In order to provide new insights into the intelligent diagnosis methods of AD, this paper reviews the recent advances including methods based on single-modality and multi-modality and discusses the future work.

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    Applying artificial intelligence in ophthalmic real-world practice: opportunities and challenges
    Mingguang HE,Chi LIU,Zhixi LI
    Journal of Shandong University (Health Sciences)    2020, 58 (11): 1-10.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.1181
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    Artificial intelligence has rapidly evolved from the experimental phase to the implementation phase in many clinical disciplines, including ophthalmology. The data-driven deep learning technology has created unprecedented opportunities for major breakthroughs in the imaging data-based automated diagnoses in ophthalmology, significantly improving the accessibility, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of eye care systems. Although this technology will have a profound impact on clinical flow and practice patterns sooner or later, translating such a technology into clinical practice is challenging. With comprehensively going through the latest progress in this research domain, this article highlights the opportunities and challenges of the real-world deployment of artificial intelligence in ophthalmology, and figures out the potential problems that may arise during the transition, such as diagnosis bias, clinical evaluation, medical accountability, as well as ethical and legal issues. The discovery could facilitate the integration of artificial intelligence into routine clinical practice and further improve the relevant applications.

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    Application of CT venography in the diagnosis and treatment of recurrent lower extremity varicose veins
    WU Mengtao, WU Peng, YANG Yanfei, TANG Dianjun, MIAO Xiangling, LI Fandong
    Journal of Shandong University (Health Sciences)    2020, 1 (9): 21-26.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0756
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    Objective To explore the application of computed tomography venography(CTV)in the diagnosis and treatment of recurrent lower extremity varicose veins. Methods The clinical data of 91 patients(91 limbs)with recurrent lower extremity varicose veins treated in our hospital during Jan. 2014 and Dec. 2019 were analyzed. The CTV data were collected and three-dimensional models were reconstructed. The causes of recurrence were analyzed with reference to the cross-sectional images and three-dimensional models, and the culprit veins causing recurrence were accurately located by previewing visualized surgeries. Individualized treatment plans were developed with the help of color Doppler ultrasound. The application value of CTV in the diagnosis and treatment of recurrent lower extremity varicose veins was evaluated based on curative effects and follow-up results. Results The cross-sectional images and three-dimensional models of CTV could identify the cause of recurrence and clearly display the culprit veins and adjacent tissues. After individualized surgeries, the varicose veins disappeared and ulcers healed in 21(13.5-31.0)days. During the follow-up of 5 to 60[average 18(11-27)] months, no varicose veins or ulcers recurred. The diameter of the iliac vein and number of valves measured by CTV were significantly smaller than those measured by color Doppler ultrasound(P<0.001), but the number of perforating veins was significantly larger(P<0.001). Conclusion CTV can help to clearly determine the cause of recurrence of varicose veins in lower extremities, accurately locate the culprit veins, and provide intraoperative road map information. It has clinical value that color Doppler cannot replace.
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    Effects of PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone on the differentiation of beige adipocytes in 24 obese individuals
    LI Han, FU Tingting, ZHANG Lei, YAN Bing, SUN Tao, GUO Feng, YIN Xiao
    Journal of Shandong University (Health Sciences)    2020, 1 (9): 8-13.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0266
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    Objective To investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ(PPARγ)agonist, rosiglitazone, on the browning process of white adipose tissues from obese patients, so as to provide possible treatment for obesity. Methods The subcutaneous white adipose tissues were collected from 24 obese patients who underwent selective operation. The adipose-derived stem cells(ADSCs)were isolated and induced to differentiate into mature adipocytes, which were then divided into control group, Rosi-1 group(1 μmol/L rosiglitazone), and Rosi-2 group(2 μmol/L rosiglitazone). The expressions of uncoupling protein 1(UCP1)and beige adipocytespecific thermogenic genes were detected with Western blotting and real time qRT-PCR. Lipolysis was analyzed using colorimetric assay. Results With rosiglitazone treatment, the adipocytes in Rosi-1 and Rosi-2 groups exhibited multi-nodular lipid droplets, higher expression of UCP1(t=23.12, P<0.01; t=7.35, P<0.01), and higher expressions of beige adipocyte specific thermogenic genes, including UCP1(t=2.63, P=0.03; t=9.86, P<0.01), PPARγ(t=2.8, P=0.02; t=11.06, P<0.01)and PRDM16(t=2.65, P=0.02; t=12.85, P<0.01). Rosi-1 group(t=2.76, P=0.02)and Rosi-2 group(t=5.83, P<0.01)showed increased lipolysis compared with control group. Conclusion PPARγ agonists can enhance the differentiation of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissues in obese patients and induce the browning process of white adipose tissues. The development of PPARγ agonists which have effects on adipose tissues may provide new path for the treatment of obesity.
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    Follicle protection and antioxidant effect of quercetin on the cryopreservation of ewe ovarian tissues
    YANG Lukai, JIANG Ligang, CUI Yanting, LIU Jin, HAN Yilong, CHEN Chao, DENG Xiaohui
    Journal of Shandong University (Health Sciences)    2020, 1 (9): 1-7.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0655
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    Objective To investigate the effect of quercetin in cryoprotectant on the activity of follicles after cryopreservation of ovarian tissues. Methods Cortical pieces of 36 sexually mature ewe ovaries were randomly assigned to fresh control(CON)group, vitrification(VIT)group, vitrification with low, medium and high concentration(1, 5, 10 μmol/L)of quercetin(VWQ1, VWQ2, VWQ3)groups. The cortical pieces were rewarmed and cultured after vitrification to measure the estrogen levels, count the number of follicles and observe the morphological changes. The proliferating cell nucleus antigen of ovarian tissues was analyzed with immunohistochemistry. Tissue apoptosis was detected with TUNEL, and antioxidant capacity of ovarian tissues was determined with immunohistochemistry and visible light colorimetry. Results The proportion of morphological normal follicles was the highest while the number of apoptotic cells was the lowest in CON group(84.1%, P<0.001; 13.92±3.88, P<0.001). Compared with the VIT group, the VWQ1 group had higher rate of morphological normal follicles(76.5% vs 71.7%, P=0.035), fewer number of apoptotic cells(50.96±24.28 vs 73.44±35.47, P=0.017), and higher expressions of manganese superoxide dismutase(SOD-2)and catalase(CAT)[0.54(0.53, 0.55)vs 0.32(0.29, 0.51), P<0.001; 5.60±1.49 vs 3.48±1.21, P=0.008]. The VWQ3 group had the lowest rate of morphological normal follicles(61.2%, P<0.001), but the largest number of apoptotic cells(127.12±42.46, P<0.001). Conclusion Low concentration of quercetin in cryoprotection can reduce the oxidative damage on ovarian tissues and thus preserve the follicular activity, but excessively high concentration of quercetin can be harmful.
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    Clinical observation of the effects of two endoscopic approaches on olfactory function in 232 patients undergoing pituitary tumor resection
    WANG Hui, CHENG Lian, XU Shujun
    Journal of Shandong University (Health Sciences)    2020, 1 (8): 95-100.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0038
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    Objective To compare the changes of olfactory function in two groups of patients who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal approach(ETSA)and endoscopic nasal septum submucosal approach for pituitary adenoma resection. Methods A total of 232 patients with pituitary adenoma treated in our hospital during Jan. 2017 and Apr. 2018 were prospectively divided into the observation group(nasal septum submucosal approach, n=149)and control group(ETSA, n=83). Olfactory detection threshold(DT)and recognition threshold(RT)were measured at different time points before and after operation by five-taste method. Results Before operation, DT was 1.70±0.30 in the observation group and 1.67±0.36 in the control group, and RT was 2.22±0.52 and 2.26±0.50, respectively(P>0.05). One month after operation, DT rose to 3.22±0.99 and 3.56±0.91, respectively(P=0.011), and RT rose to 3.79±0.84 and 4.34±0.82(P<0.001). There were significant differences between the two groups(P<0.05), and the control group had higher DT and RT than the observation group. Three months after operation, DT was 2.69±0.70 in the observation group and 3.05±0.97 in the control group(P=0.003), and RT was 3.31±0.74 and 3.84±0.76, respectively(P<0.001). There were significant differences between the two groups(P<0.05). Six months after operation, DT was 2.21±0.64 in the observation group and 2.66±0.79 in the control group(P<0.001), and RT was 2.98±0.64 and 3.44±0.55, respectively(P<0.001). There were significant differences between the two groups(P<0.01), and the control group had higher DT and RT than the observation group. Conclusion Both approaches could affect the olfactory function, which could not return to the pre-operative level 6 months after operation. Compared with ETSA, the endoscopic nasal septum submucosal approach caused less damage to olfactory function.
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    Construction of SEIQCR epidemic model and its application in the evaluation of public health interventions on COVID-19 in Guangzhou
    XU Lijun, LIU Wenhui, LIU Yuan, LI Meixia, LUO Lei, OU Chunquan
    Journal of Shandong University (Health Sciences)    2020, 58 (10): 20-24.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.0775
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    Objective To develop a dynamic model of susceptible(S), exposed people in the latent period(E), infective(I), quarantined(Q), confirmed(C), and recovered(R)(SEIQCR)to evaluate the role of interventions and control the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19)epidemic in Guangzhou. Methods Based on the SEIR propagation dynamics model, the modules of “quarantined” and “confirmed” cases were added to establish a new SEIQCR model. The epidemic data in Guangzhou from Jan. 13 to Mar. 17, 2020 were fitted to obtain the parameters of SEIQCR model. Results The number of predicted cases based on these parameters was highly consistent with the actual incidence(R2=0.93). Time-dependent reproduction number declined rapidly with the implementation of first level response to COVID-19, indicating that local transmission was effectively controlled. Conclusion The preventative and control measures were effective. Local government should continue strictly implementing the isolation system and cut off the transmission channels to curb the transmission of COVID-19. The SEIQCR model can provide methodological reference for intervention assessment in other regions.
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    Correlation of fat distribution with metabolic syndrome and glucose metabolism in 52 obese patients
    HU Yanwen, WANG Zhiyuan, YU Wanjiang, ZHAO Huichen, HAN Heli, XU Zhipeng, MA Hong, ZHANG Yuchao, LIU Yuantao
    Journal of Shandong University (Health Sciences)    2020, 1 (8): 101-106.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.673
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    Objective To investigate the effects of fat distribution measured by quantitative-computed tomography(Q-CT)on metabolic syndrome(MS)and glucose metabolism in obese people. Methods Totally 52 patients with body mass index(BMI)≥28 were collected and divided into two groups: obesity with MS group(OB-MS group, n=32)and obesity without MS group(OB-NMS group, n=20). According to the results of 75g oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT), the subjects were divided into three groups: obesity with normal glucose tolerance group(OB-NGT group, n=17), impaired glucose tolerance group(OB-IGT group, n=15), and obesity with diabetes mellitus group(OB-DM group, n=20). The adipose tissue area and visceral fat area of lumbar vertebras 2, 3, 4 and 5, the muscle and fat area of bilateral psoas major and back muscles, and the percentages of liver fat and pancreatic fat were quantitatively determined with spiral CT. Meanwhile, various metabolic and biochemical indexes were detected and compared. Results OB-MS group had significantly larger visceral fat area(t=3.37)and higher percentage of pancreatic fat(t=2.05)than OB-NMS group. There were statistically significant differences in visceral fat area(F=7.63), percentage of liver fat(F=5.93)and percentage of pancreatic head fat(F=3.70)among the three groups with different glucose tolerance(P<0.05). OB-IGT and OB-DM groups had larger visceral fat area than OB-NGT group, and OB-DM group had greater percentages of liver fat and pancreatic head fat than OB-NGT group(P<0.05). Multiple linear regression results showed that after age and insulin resistance index were adjusted, visceral fat area(SB=-0.83, P=0.02)and percentage of pancreatic head fat(SB=-0.51, P=0.02)were negatively correlated with modified β-cell function index(MBCI). Conclusion The accumulation of visceral fat is an important factor leading to metabolic syndrome, while visceral fat, liver fat and pancreatic head fat are important risk factors leading to abnormal glucose metabolism in obese people. These results provide clinical indicators for the early identification of metabolic syndrome and diabetes in obese patients.
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    Quantitative analysis of the loss of sensitivity in the nucleic acid detection of SARS-CoV-2
    DONG Hongjie, ZHANG Junmei, WANG Hongwei, WANG Maofeng, ZHANG Kundi, ZHANG Fengyu, WANG Shuai, HU Wei, XIE Shiling, GU Lichuan
    Journal of Shandong University (Health Sciences)    2021, 59 (1): 1-7.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.1069
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    Objective To conduct the quantitative analysis of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection sensitivity loss, and to provide support for improving the detection process and solving the false negative problem. Methods The N gene pseudovirus was taken as the sample, the factors that might affect the diagnostic sensitivity in nucleic acid extraction method, pH of preservation solution, volume of preservation solution used for nucleic acid extraction were analyzed and optimized systematically, and the optimized detection method was compared with the current conventional detection method. Results The detection sensitivity could be improved by extraction of nucleic acid by centrifugal column method and using acid sample preservation solution. With the increase of the volume of the preservation solution, the pseudovirus was released more fully. When the volume of the preservation solution reached 3 mL, the pseudovirus was almost completely eluted. The detection sensitivity exhibited more than ten times the difference when 200 μL and 3 mL preservation solution were used to extract nucleic acid, respectively. When the whole preservation samples was extracted by centrifugal column method, and 12 μL template was added into the PCR system, the detection sensitivity could reach 70 copies/mL; when 200 μL preservation sample was taken to extract the nucleic acid, and 4 μL template was added into the PCR system, the detection sensitivity was 700 copies/mL. Conclusion The novel coronavirus specimens are stored in the slightly acidic sample, and the nucleic acid is extracted by centrifugation column method using as many preservation solution samples as possible, and the largest number of nucleic acid templates are added into the PCR system. The sensitivity of the nucleic acid detection method is 10 times higher than that of the conventional detection method.
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    Research advances in the formation of glioma immunosuppressive microenvironment
    Gang LI,Hao XUE,Wei QIU,Rongrong ZHAO
    Journal of Shandong University (Health Sciences)    2020, 1 (8): 67-73.   DOI: 10.6040/j.issn.1671-7554.0.2020.430
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    As the most common and lethal primary tumor of the central nervous system, glioma responds poorly to conventional treatments. Although novel immunotherapies have been adopted, the prognosis of glioma patients is still poor due to the immunosuppressive microenvironment. Therefore, a thorough investigation of the formation mechanism of glioma immunosuppressive microenvironment has become the focus. Based on the latest research progress, we summarized and prospected the future research direction of glioma immunosuppressive microenvironment, hoping to provide reference for the better understanding of this disease.

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